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Summary õ eBook, ePUB or Kindle PDF ✓ Niall Ferguson

Acy of Metternich he shot to celebrity by arguing for limited nuclear war Nelson Rockefeller hired him Kennedy called him to Camelot Yet Kissinger’s rise was anything but irresistible Dogged by press gaffes disappointed by Rocky Kissinger seemed stuck until a trip to Vietnam changed everything  The Idealist is the story of one of the most important strategic thinkers America has ever produced It's also a political Bildungsroman explaining how “Dr Strangelove” ended up as consigliere to a politician he'd always abhorred Like Ferguson’s classic volume history of the House of Rothschild Kissinger sheds new light on an entire era The essential account of an extraordinary life it recasts the Cold War worl. This 900 page tome is the first in a two part profile of the uintessential American foreign policy maker for better or worse With characteristic wit and erudition Niall Ferguson gives a hugely detailed portrait of the development of Henry Kissinger's intellect from fleeing Nazi Germany service in the second World War his education and discomfort and ironic rejection of the college atmosphere and his first forays into political life with Nelson Rockefeller and Presidents Kennedy and Johnson I won't say the 900 pages fly by there is almost too much information to be digested but I can say you will be left with a much different and much clearer picture of the young Kissinger before the world got to know him as Nixon's National Security Advisor That is a much public tale and one which will have to wait for the next volumeThis one is highly recommended but realize you're in it for the long haul

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Kissinger Vol 1 The Idealist 1923 1968No American statesman 1 The ePUB #185 has been as revered or as reviled as Henry Kissinger Once hailed as “Super K” the “indispensable man” whose advice has been sought by every president from Kennedy to Obama he has also been hounded by conspiracy theorists scouring his every “telcon” for evidence of Machiavellian malfeasance Yet as Niall Ferguson shows in this Kissinger Vol eBook #8608 volume biography drawing not only on Kissinger’s hitherto closed private papers but also on documents from than a hundred archives around the world the idea of Kissinger as the ruthless arch realist is based on a profound misunderstanding The first half of Kissinger’s life is usually skimmed over as a uintesse. My review in the Weekly Standard attentive magnificently written and profoundly researched biography of Henry Kissinger before he took office is stunningly good and stuns as much for what it does not say as what it does Earlier Kissinger biographers have tried to comprehend him not uite in order to forgive his crimes but to share with others—usually Adolf Hitler—the blame for them Hitler stung Kissinger at a tender age into his amoral realism and caused him to lure us into a foreign policy that history has proved was unnecessary Walter Isaacson’s 1992 biography ends with the triumph of the West in the Cold War in spite of realpolitik Kissinger’s machinations came to naught because the Cold War was like a TED conference than a life and death struggle Victory came to us because our values “eventually proved attractive”Niall Ferguson is 15 years younger than the midcentury baby boomers like Isaacson Christopher Hitchens and me whose fathers were Kissinger’s contemporaries Facing not an effortless Cold War victory but a victory suandered Ferguson is free of the presupposition that both he and his reader are Kissinger’s moral superiors Instead using Kissinger’s thought and early career as his vantage point Ferguson writes a marvelously capacious and dramatic history of American foreign policy during the Cold War’s first generationFerguson devotes an entire volume to the period of Kissinger’s life that Walter Isaacson tells in 139 pages out of 767 This volume ends with president elect Richard Nixon’s appointment of his national security adviser—and a portentous few pages on Kissinger’s appointment of a military adviser a young Army colonel called Alexander Haig Freed of the psychological pressure to get to the good bits whatever horror you fancy in Kissinger’s public career Ferguson has the space fully to explore every aspect of Kissinger’s past including the most thorough account of the experience of his Jewish family in gritty Fürth northern Bavaria which had in 1813 taken the name KissingerArriving in New York at the age of 15 Kissinger turns himself into an American adolescent a soldier and a married student at Harvard on the GI Bill where he prepared himself for his career as Harvard professor defense intellectual foreign policy adviser to the Eisenhower Kennedy and Johnson administrations and secretary of state in waiting to the man he thought would be the sixties’ greatest president Nelson Rockefeller When Ferguson is through there is very little left of the picture of Kissinger as a wounded victim of history or of court Jew—the man whom Isaacson described as a born courtier “incorrigibly attracted to powerful charismatic and wealthy people”Ferguson depicts a very different type of midcentury figure Kissinger enters history as a man of action in the mold of Albert Camus Antoine de Saint Exupéry and André Malraux with rifle in his hand Had it not been for World War II Ferguson muses Kissinger might have become a successful accountant History thrust him into the Battle of the Bulge and as the US Army advanced toward the Rhine Kissinger found himself—with a rank never higher than staff sergeant—the de facto administrator of just captured towns in southern Germany just behind the front where he had to deal on his own with starvation and looting among a sullen occasionally violent populaceSoon he became a counterintelligence agent routing out Wehrmacht cells behind American lines for which he earned his Bronze Star Even during basic training the Army gave him for the first time the sense of being fully American and he felt committed to its mission in Germany not as a Jew but as someone dedicated to a common purpose His distraught parents in New York wanted him to come home from that “terrible place” and he tried to explain why he couldn’t He and a friend had made a promise to one another the night Hitler died that “we would stay to do in our little way what we could to make all previous sacrifices meaningful We would stay just long enough to do that”The sense of commitment to a mission that American arms discovered in action—that we had a responsibility to restore the world—kept Sergeant Kissinger in the Army and propelled him through the first 20 years of his academic career As student and professor Kissinger advised not realism but its opposite; not American supremacy but a commitment to our allies’ self determination; not icy superiority but a sympathetic understanding of the motives of our adversaries partners and standers by Above all he believed that a great power had the same obligation to commitment and action that he had felt as a soldier in GermanyWe must find the will to act and to run risks in a situation which permits only a choice among evils While we should never give up our principles we must also realize that we cannot maintain our principles unless we surviveKissinger was the same kind of idealist as John Locke who argued for British participation in the War of the Spanish Succession because “how fond soever I am of peace I think truth ought to accompany it which cannot be preserved without Liberty Nor that without the Balance of Europe kept up”Early and late Kissinger counseled an ethic of action as both strategy and principle In 1950 he formulated a criticism of Harry Truman’s policy of containment because it yielded all initiative to our adversaries Containment had become in effectan instrument of Soviet policy     We have enabled the USSR to select points of involvement for maximum United States discomfort leading to a fragmentation of our forces and their committal in strategically unproductive areas     We have     allowed the Soviet General Staff in a strategic sense to deploy our resources and in a tactical sense to lure our armies into endless adventuresIn his first book published in 1957 he made the same point about Dwight D Eisenhower and John Foster Dulles’s reliance on mutually assured destruction Kissinger saw the fruits of these policies in the twin crises of 1956 Suez and the Hungarian uprising “The petty bureaucrats in Washington” he wrote to a colleague “were outraged with Britain and France than with the Soviets because the British upset their plans completely And they were even a little bit irritated with the Hungarians because they forced them into making decisions it would have been simpler never to have had to face     And the Hungarians have shown us the insignificance of our moral stature” To McGeorge Bundy he wrote a few weeks later “We may have proved that aggression does not pay”—for France and Britain not the Soviet Union—“but we have done so to people least likely to disturb the peace     I would feel happier about professions of high moral principles if they did not so freuently coincide with a policy of minimum risk”With eual consistency and fervor Kissinger criticized the United States of 1956 on another point It was not idealist enough and it seldom bothered to articulate its ideals to the rest of the world “We the empiricists appear to the world as rigid unimaginative and even somewhat cynical while the dogmatic Bolsheviks exhibit flexibility daring and subtlety” he lamented in the year of Suez We promised the world prosperity but “unless we address ourselves to the problem of encouraging institutions which protect human dignity the future of freedom is dim indeed” We justify our actions on the basis “of a communist threat very rarely on the basis of things we wanted to do because of our intrinsic dynamism” In an early television interview 1958 he told Mike Wallace We should go on the spiritual offensive in the world We did it ourselves with the Revolution     We should say that freedom if it is liberated can achieve many of these things Instead our leadership was programmatically indifferent to the national aspirations of our allies—and incapable of deciding who our allies should be Kissinger wanted the Germans to take a bigger role in the Berlin crisis than John F Kennedy wanted them to do; he admired the fractious Charles de Gaulle and thought he was correct on such matters as maintaining France’s independent nuclear force de frappe When nominal allies showed that they were incapable of acting in their own interests—as he thought the South Vietnamese were not—Kissinger believed that they should not be regarded as being worth the sacrifice of American resources and livesThose who know Niall Ferguson’s newspaper writings will understand that he shares his subject’s deep admiration for America and the conviction that we cannot shirk our role on the world stage When Kissinger is frustrated with American leaders and bureaucrats who lack the ability or instinct or even the desire to explain and defend their country against the criticism of allies or the malice of enemies—no one understands better than FergusonBut it is than a shared view of foreign policy that makes Ferguson Kissinger’s proper biographer He has a deep affinity for Kissinger as a human being Biographer and subject came to America as or less adults; each survived the horrors of being a newcomer at Harvard; both were precociously successful academics whose celebrity beyond the campus earned them the scorn of conventional and less productive colleagues Neither contented himself with early success They continued to work prodigiously hard with an intensity which may have injured the happiness of each man’s family Ferguson describes with sadness the breakdown of Kissinger’s marriage and in his acknowledgments thanks his own ex wife with dignified candorThe greatest affinity between Ferguson and Kissinger is their devotion to history as a way of understanding the world Ferguson made his mark with a particularly swinging kind of counterfactual history His first book The Pity of War depicted a world much better off without Britain’s entry into World War I He greets Kissinger as a fellow counterfactual historian understanding the profound un inevitability of the world around him In his career as a policy intellectual Kissinger soon learned that America’s leadership both political and military preferred to understand the world as lawyers see it and sometimes cherished its historical ignorance which extended in the Kennedy administration so Kissinger thought from the White House down to the lowliest grunt serving in South VietnamFerguson makes us admire the subtlety and flexibility of Kissinger’s historical understanding but it is not always easy to grasp The polarity of idealism and realism begins to bind and limit Ferguson in much the same way Kissinger thought American reliance on mutually assured destruction and containment gave the initiative to the Soviet Union Kissinger’s adversaries can seem to determine the battlefield on which Ferguson must fight and define the charges against which Kissinger must be defended Where Ferguson writes that Kennedy really did seek Kissinger’s advice and that Kissinger really did want to initiate peace talks with North Vietnam in 1968 you begin to feel that Niall Ferguson is speaking to someone over your shoulderAfter such knowledge as Ferguson provides what forgiveness Or what acuaintance For me Henry Kissinger’s personality remains elusive An aspect of Kissinger’s military career once again explains than anything else Most counterintelligence officers were like Kissinger no than NCOs; their uniforms bore no badge of rank at all and only generals were entitled to know it Sergeant Kissinger had the power “to order     immediate and unuestioned assistance of available troops     from any officer up to and including a full colonel” as a fellow counterintelligence officer explained If an officer asked his rank Kissinger’s instructions were to reply “My rank is confidential but at this moment I am not outranked”Even after Niall Ferguson’s work this may be the most telling description we have of the real man

Niall Ferguson ✓ 8 Summary

Read å Kissinger Vol 1 The Idealist 1923 1968 ´ eBook, ePUB or Kindle PDF ☆ [PDF / Epub] ☂ Kissinger Vol 1 The Idealist 1923 1968 By Niall Ferguson – Gym-apparel.co.uk No American statesman has been as revered or as reviled as Henry Kissinger Once hailed as “Super K”—the “indisNtial tale of American ascent the Jewish Vol 1 The PDF #199 refugee from Hitler’s Germany who made it to the White House But in this first of two volumes Ferguson shows that what Kissinger achieved before his appointment as Nixon’s national Vol 1 The Idealist 1923 PDFEPUB or security adviser was astonishing in its own right Toiling as a teen in a New York factory he studied indefatigably at night He was drafted into the Vol 1 The Idealist 1923 PDFEPUB or infantry saw action at the Battle of the Bulge as well as the liberation of a concentration camp but ended his army career interrogating Nazis It was at Harvard that Kissinger found his vocation Having immersed himself in the philosophy of Kant the diplom. Kissinger Vol 1 The Idealist 1923 1968 is the first volume of Henry Kissinger's biography written by Niall Ferguson The biography begins in Furth Germany Kissinger's place of birth and describes the vibrant Jewish community that existed there during the 19th and early 20th century Kissinger grew up in a time when anti Semitism in Germany was on the rise and when Hitler took power in 1933 Kissinger's father a teacher by trade was sacked from his job They tried in vain to find work but the Kissinger family decided to pack up and leave for the United States incidentally very soon before the Night of Broken Glass and the beginning of violent Jewish repression in GermanyKissinger spent his teenage and early years in Furth uietly He enjoyed soccer and generally stayed out of politics until his teen years when he joined a Zionist society advocating for a Jewish homeland in Palestine This society was of a study group but Kissinger would denounce his Jewish roots as he grew older His family moved to New York in the 1930's a place that was itself heavily segregated and fraught with racial and political tension Kissinger attended a Jewish college and eventually graduated to attend Harvard University As a student Kissinger began to take an interest in philosophy and history and specialized in 19th century German history His studies were interrupted by WWII when Kissinger joined to return to Germany and fight for the US army He took the role of an intelligence officer early on and assisted in the push into Germany from the Netherlands and eventually ended up working for US occupation forces in the Hesse region Kissinger returned home to Harvard and finished his degree eventually writing an influential and extremely long thesis on the philosophy of politics and attaining his MastersNewly minted Dr Kissinger also married a Jewish girl around this time although the marriage would be an unhappy one and would collapse years later Notorious Kissinger the ladies man was not a figure at this time Kissinger's political career was also not around yet although he had contacts in military intelligence and after his doctorate at Harvard These relationships would serve him well in the future It took a while for Doctor Kissinger to get tenured professorship but he ran a popular class on political philosophy and specialized in German history He began to become involved in the political world as well but his career took off when he published two influential papers on limited tactical nuclear use and subseuent US policy in regards to its growing Cold War conflict with the USSR Kissinger was uickly propelled into stardom and became a household name in the US He was picked up in 1960 by the Rockefeller campaign as he began to work with US foreign policy think tanks and started to publish foreign policy pieces there His relationship with Rockefeller was strained but he stayed loyal for the most part Even so when Kennedy was elected Kissinger was scooped up with the Harvard boys into Kennedy's inner circle and began to help form policy in the US Kissinger although famous was sidelined by a former Harvard mentor possibly out of academic rivalry Although sidelined Kissinger was still an influential policy advisor He caused a scandal in Pakistan when he theorized about the India Pakistan conflict being too overconfident about his widely regarded advisory skills and misreading events surrounding the Kashmir conflict He did however signal a diplomatic coup for the Americans in West Germany as he made a détente with the sitting Chancellor and talked up US commitment to a European nuclear umbrella Kissinger missed the Cuba missile crisis as he was on the out at the time but his star again began to rise as the 1964 presidential election gained speed This is when Kissinger began to become the Kissinger the world so loves or hates He began to become influential again about the Vietnam conflict and the German issues with the Soviets and his advisory skills made him a valuable target again for the Rockefellers for Nixon and so on The book ends as he steps into the height of his influence 1968 as a White House advisor to be continued in part 2Ferguson's Kissinger is probably the definitive biography on the man Everything you will ever need to know about Kissinger and is in this volume and presumably will continue in part 2 Ferguson makes the claim that Kissinger was not the Machiavellian politician people claim he was but a Kantian influenced historianphilosopher Kissinger was indeed idealistic about the need for a integrated NATO community and put stock on limited tactical nuclear strikes something he is infamous for now So what of this biography It is the biography of the rise of a much derived career politician whose name is synonymous with coup d'état's a disregard for freedoms around the globe and Machiavellian diplomacy Kissinger is the man who would eventually contribute to the loss of Vietnam but also a diplomatic volte face in China Ferguson is a conservative historian and well placed to write about this politician Ferguson plays up the ideological angle of Kissinger's ideas and in some respects this is probably correct over the hysteria that surrounded Kissinger back in the day He is an adept and able writer and he has done an excellent job on this biographyMy one small complaint is the tangents the book sometimes takes Some of them are interesting the Cuban crisis for example which is talked of in detail even though Kissinger was not a part of the decision making process Some are just odd Ferguson devotes a whole chapter to the history of Jews in Furth an entire chapter to segregationist policies in 1930's New York City and so on In a 1000 page book these tangent's often distract from the narrative to the point where it is difficult to remember where Kissinger left off Ferguson took a grand approach to this biography and uses Kissinger as a tool to define the age and feeling of paranoia and oppression in the world and the US at this point in history Mostly he has done an excellent job and only slips the narrative a couple of timesAll things considered this was an enjoyable read and fit the climate of the US 2016 presidential election which has ended as of writing this only a few hours ago Ferguson has done a great job chronicling the rise of one of the United States of America's greatest political bureaucrats and love him or hate him his policies had a definitive impact on the world as we know it today His influence on US strategic thought were influential in creating the Cold War US that remains so controversial with its coups dictators and nuclear threats All in all a good read